Online Services in Madagascar


Madagascar has some online services such as asking online your fiscal identification number  through but it requires that you go at the office to present the original pieces of papers requested ; therefore the online service is highly uncompleted as it only save time on downloading but even here, filling the form is sometimes complicated.  Madagascar websites are better known for information delivery, not really for service delivery.

What should exist in Madagascar is a large database of its population which existence will facilitate all administrative procedures to people years after.  These databases should include at least Name, First name, National ID, Residence certificate, Birth Certificate as these are the basic document needed anywhere you go. other document can be  added of course.

These databases should be designed to update continuously mainly regarding  Citizen under 18 years old who will get automatically his/her National ID a day after their 18th birthday, instead of following long days of procedures and waiting long queues, since the system calculate automatically his/her age. (The need of an updated photo and fingerprints will be the only reason for him/her to go to the appropriate office to get his national ID). The Identity of the person who will go to the office can be checked by other ways such as

This automatic updating system can be expanded through other areas.

All ministries, government institution , private enterprise, banks, hospitals,  Telecommunication operators should have access to these information so that when people intend to apply for a job, subscribe to a university degree, create enterprises, open a bank account, close a bank account,  … they don’t have to bring basic papers.

Practical example :

Amanda was born in 12  June 2015 and let’s suppose that the database system is operational on 1st January 2016. The Hospital is the starting point of the database by inserting the name of all newborn babies in the nation. As she gets her first diploma at the age of 11 ( for example) , the ministry of education will insert in the database her notes, scores and diplôma. The same when she gets her baccalaureate diploma, Licence and Master degrees.

Amanda is 18 years old on 12 June 2033.  Her National ID is ready by the last day of May 2033 and she just get to the respective office the 13 June 2033 to take photo and get her ID few minutes after with fingerprints saved.

She has her first mobile phone, Telecommunication operator links her profile with a number related to her. (This is a little complicate when people here have more than 1 mobile phone) When she applies for a job, the enterprise concerned checks her national ID card  on the database and see all her information. If she is retained for the job, the private enterprise inserts in the database her entry date to the professional segment ( and automatic job certificate is available). When shee needs to open a bank account to transfer her salary, the bank has access to the database and  will see  that she is really working (The proof of having a job is mandatory in Madagascar when you want to open a bank account) .  If she leaves a job, the same principles apply.  If she needs to go abroad, getting her international passport from the Ministry of Internal affairs is not difficult.

When she marries, her profile will be linked to her husband in the database and marriage certificate is automatically generated…

The objective is to only bring your National ID to achieve a procedure in whole national territory whatever paper is asked as all information are moved online in the database.

Note : Before her 18th birthday, parents can save a paper version of her original certificate of birth ( delivered when the baby was born with a unique unchangeable identification number – the  birth certificate identification number will identify the child himself during his life _ This identification number will be inserted by the hospital in the database to identify a person )  to prove the identity of their children.  This will avoid identity usurpation.

When someone dies, the Birth Identification number will be of no use anymore. Death Center Agency will inform the database of the death of the person. Information about the person can be archived.

Degree of access to information on the database may vary depending on national level requirement and in respect of privacy of personal life. The Citizen himself can even add some lines checked later by the concerned agency if it is true or not. – Fabienne Rafidiharinirina, Madagascar.



This article presents the vivid difference and advantages of the e-service of registration for new businesses in Armenia, which the author has investigated.

The e-service is provided by the State Register of Legal Entities of the Republic of Armenia which makes the registration process much easier, faster and quite more transparent than it was years ago.

Further is the comparative description of firm registration processes in Armenia before and after the e-service implementation.

The new service provision made unnecessary to visit the register body, which contains many disadvantages such as time wasting in order to find the right place, right officer on the right time and with the right mood.

Now, the website of Electronic register presents all the details and friendly suggestions the business starters need for a firm registration.

The process begins from the selection of a firm name. Years ago the name selection implied filling the application form in the office of register body, and the application processing lasted for several days. If the name did not meet specific criteria or was already in use, the process was repeated from the beginning, and could take many days and even weeks.

The speed of approvement and causes of rejection of the selected firm name was not transparent and was heavily related on decisions of the register body officers, who had leverages to speed-up or slow-down the approvement process, which, logically, contained a risk of biased behavior and even corruption.

Now the automated approach allows entrepreneurs to select a firm name online just in few seconds. Selection procedure becomes similar to registration of new e-mail or a social network account.

The next step is the submission of a new firm charter. Now the e-system provides applicants with a standard chart which is quite enough for beginners. Previously, the applicants were forced to create their charters by themselves and were forced to agree the charters with the registration body. This approvement necessity also gave the registry officers authority and leverages on accepting or rejecting the charters prepared by applicants.

Some unfair employees of the registering body might use that power to create artificial obstacles for business beginners, who commonly do not have enough resources to hire experts for getting appropriate advice. It is obvious that such approach was increasing the risk of corrupted behavior.

The final process of firm registration, after the firm name selection and charter approvement, might still last for weeks. Again the appropriate officials had a power to influence the registration speed, which was also associated with the corruption risk.

Now the whole business registration process becomes online without face-to-face contact with the registry body, thus the risk of corruption and biased attitude is significantly reduced.

Another useful e-service provided on the noted web portal is the online database of all the registered entities in Armenia, including executive body members, creation date, owners, official charters and other information.

This tool in line with the other Armenian e-service provided on judiciary portal, which contains information about all legal cases of Armenia, makes possible to know if the potential partner company, its owners and/or executive body members have been involved in court cases, whether they and the company have debts to the Government or are in bankruptcy process.

This helps to evaluate anonymously the partner’s business reputation, which was impossible before the above mentioned e-services execution.

Despite the described progress in business registration, most of the services provided by the Armenian government are still offline and cannot be considered as efficient, require face-to-face contact with state bodies and citizens, which, unfortunately, may contain a risk of corruption.

In conclusion, it should be noted that Armenia has positive shifts toward online public services provision, however the country has a long way to pass before achieving full-fledged electronic Government. – Anna Banduryan, Armenia



Social media include all computer technology-based platforms where people communicate within the shortest time possible. It is applied by one to reach one, or one to many, or many to one or many to many recipients.In Kenya, the government applies a host of social media platforms to enable its business. The most common channels are twitter, Face book, G+, Short message Service (SMS), e-mail web-hosting, chat rooms, virtual learning platforms, Skype and blogs.


Twitter is used to give shortened information about an undertaking by the government or a brief on a matter of public importance. It is also used on routine government issues which the public need to know. It is used to prevent crime, pass information to the public and get instant feedback

Face book

Face book is used by most government agencies to interact with the public and their employees. Important government functions like holidays, celebrations, achievements of milestones and exit and entry of top managers are relayed via face book. It also allows interaction between employees, management and the clientele serviced by each particular government department. Customer complaints, user document downloads and applications are found in this platform.

Short Message service (SMS)

The Short Messaging Service (SMS) is a social media interface enabled on mobile phone technology. Government departments used this media majorly for internal communication. It is applied especially when passing information that is only classified to individuals or section of individuals within a department. It is applied for tracking of identity carts, driving licences or passport applications and notification of urgent government meetings.


E-mail services are widely used by government officials both within and without the organisation. Within a government department emailing is used to task employees and give feedback from one level to another. Important announcements like job vacancies, applications for such vacancies, launching of complaints, reporting of corruption and posting of personal documents are done on this platform. It is also used as an identification means to access government portals.

Internet websites

All government ministries have serviceable web sites.. They enable clients to log in and inquire all manner of services they may require from time to time. The public also get access to download official documents which have been posted in such websites. On the other hand, the various ministries, post their policies, projects, requests for proposals, progress reports and upcoming events in such web pages for public information. With the internet, the government has introduced a variety of e-services. They include e-citizen, e-commerce, e-travel and e-tax. With e-citizen, the government has reduced paper-work in a significant proportion as applicants of passports, identity cards, and driving licences among other licences just go online, fill the requisite forms then wait for the process. The government licensed mobile phone operators to roll out money transfer services using internet interfaced with phone technology.


Web blogs are used by government ministries majorly to disseminate policy matters or explain rational for particular policy direction and get feedback from the citizens.

Chat rooms

Some government departments in Kenya operate chat rooms. Here the clients engage the officials via internet and ask questions about issues affecting them and the attendant solutions. In educational institutions chat rooms are very handy in assisting students resolve their problems. This has greatly improved communication between the government officials and clients.

Virtual Learning Platform

Virtual learning has been embraced in major government universities within Kenya. A notable leader is Kenyatta University. Lessons are launched via virtual platform to students across and outside the country.


Skype is has not taken root but is rapidly developing in Kenya. A trial is being mooted to use Skype in the courts in order to protect vulnerable witnesses. One of the National universities in Kenya, the Kenyatta University, has adopted Skype usage to reach students using digital classes.

Importance of social media channels in the Government of Kenya

These channels are very important because, for one, they are instantaneous. A message reaches a larger number of people at the same time over a wide area. They ensure accuracy of the information. This is because almost all recipients get first hand information. Such information is usually free from distortion. They are convenient. Messaging is done within an office, on a motor highway, on air or on bed. The same message is decoded on the same places and interactions go on irrespective of positions of both the sender and recipient(s)

They are interactive. The persons so communicating are able to ask questions clarification and give comments on the same media without having to physically move to each other. Chat rooms are very important in that they allow one-to-one interaction between a client and an official. Issues are discussed and questions answered to the satisfaction of the client.  Virtual learning is very important in that it enables a student to take lessons anywhere apart from class. Lecturers also need travel all over to meet the students. This therefore means that a lecturer can handle more than double the number of students at any given time.


In conclusion, social media is highly connecting the government and the citizens. It has also helped in reducing bureaucratic procedures of visiting government and private offices for services. It has also increased communication between the citizens and the government. – Paul Langat, Kenya

Strategies to Increase User demand for RBME Information


Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME) advocates a paradigm shift from traditional M & E where inputs and implementation activities are emphasized over output and results.  As a management tool, RBME ensures that goals are being met on a consistent basis by emphasizing results over behaviour and activities. Mine is an agency for the control of AIDs at the state level.

Information has transformative power and lack of it opens up deformities in the management and service delivery channel.  There are three broad categories of stakeholders who need RBME information in my organization. These stakeholders in no particular order are as follows: the project team, the funder and participants. Each of these categories is a complex unit.

Obviously, different stakeholders will have different information needs.  The funder wants to know if results are being achieved and if their funds are well managed. The project manager wants to know if the project he is leading is on track, within scope, budget and time. The participants want to know that their communities and youths are leading safe sexual lives and that incidence of HIV/AIDS infections are on a downward descent.

RBME provides a framework that uses performance information to improve project efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability. I recommend the following strategies be deployed to increase user demand for RBME.

  1. Participatory Real Time Database Management System: The importance of an efficient database management system to RBME cannot be overemphasised. In addition to this, a real-time system that is able to gather, synthesise and disseminate timely information to project operation is important. Timely information is vital in an age of information overload, hence, a system that is able to sift through these myriad of data to come up with actionable information is most desirable. The real time database system can then be linked to user friendly front-ends systems, including web pages, social media platform, sms platforms, email platforms, radio platforms and even local print media, so the participants and larger public can have eyes on the direction of the project.

A major challenge for RBME use is difficulty and cost of data collection. I believe that when incentives are in place and technology leveraged, this challenge naturally fizzles away. This means that the real time database management system should provide a way of collecting data via less disruptive channels. Data collection method should not be a herculean task that discourages the data collector or alienates the data donor. A simple facebook like button that encourages users to click the button if they are practising a certain adolescent health advice is a good application. This strategy enlists the conscious participation of all stakeholders and makes RBME appear effortless. Broadband data penetration is not widespread in some areas, but most people have a mobile phone with SMS capacity. Participation of users in the RBME process can be solicited via SMS which is also affordable and popular.

  1. Establish RBME Champions as Drivers: The foundation of any building is critical to the survival of that building. In same vein, a project on a shaky foundation is on its way to failure. In order to avoid such a scenario it is important that the organization identify persons who are champions, advocates and firm believers in the principle of RBME and appoint them to leadership positions. Many good strategies arrive dead on arrival at board meetings because such strategies do not have a voice at the management level where the final buck stops. Secondly, RBME Champions should be incorporated at the implementation sphere of the organization. At the department levels, project units, and sections, these champions should be planted to be the primary drivers of RBME at these levels. They will ensure that project staffs never lose view of RBME in their day to day activities.
  1. An RBME Policy: An RBME centric policy should be put in place at all levels. The National Assembly should enact laws that make it compulsory for budgetary allocations to state governments on HIV/AIDS projects should be accounted for in terms of outputs and deliverables and not on implementation activities. At the Project Management level, of course, an M & E policy is in place, but it needs to be upgraded to inculcate principles of RBME. – Obinna Nweke, Nigeria



Open Government (OG) is about openness, which begins with process of transparency, accountability and citizen engagement for effective and efficient governance. To achieve and sustain this, all stakeholders must understand the overall goals of the process and specific roles they need to play.

OG can only be achieved when data/information related to government policies and decisions on budget, population, geodata, transports, etc from public sector bodies are made open and accessible through Open Data Initiative (ODI). However, Government data is said to be open only if it can be accessed, reused, and redistributed by anyone, for any purposes, including commercial reuse, free of costs, without any restrictions, using any convenient channel.

Open Government Data (OGD) is a system that allow access, reuse and redistribution of data that is relevant for government transparency, accountability and citizen engagement – budget data and legislative records, and including those data that can be used for enhancing service delivery – geodata, transport data, etc.

During previous administration of former President Goodluck Jonathan an Open Government Action Plan was developed through a series of stakeholder workshops and consultation sessions with government, private sector and civil society participants. The Action Plan specifies the range of investments already made by the FGN to strengthen open government in Nigeria, and outlines concrete commitments to tackle three grand challenges facing FGN; fighting administrative corruption, increasing public accountability and integrity and increasing innovation in government entities, civil society organizations and small business to better exploit increasingly available government data.

Although there is no single portal deliberately opened for OGD at the national level, despite the effort of the previous government to carry out such project through Ministry of Information Communication Technology with support from DFID and World Bank, some government agencies and institutions like Office of the Statistician General of the Federation, the National Budget Office and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) provides accessible data on annual statutory budget, statistics on employment, poverty, economic growth, GDP, inflationary rate and other economic indices on their respective websites. The data on these websites are freely available and accessible in a machine readable format that allowed reuse, redistribution and modification without any restriction. Social media experts, Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) have been using data from these websites to engage citizens to participate in governance and ask questions on economic and social issues and demand for good governance. While the local and international business communities as well as investors have being using data available from these websites for production and investment purposes.

At the State level, Edo State Government, has taken the lead, through a programme supported by World Bank, it has launched an Open Data Portal (ODP) in September, 2013 the first of its kind in Nigeria, and first sub-national portal in Africa. For the first time, the state budget, including historical data, was published and made available online for citizens to access. The ODP provides an easy way to find access and reuse public datasets from the State Government, with the hope of providing a platform for improving transparency, catalysing innovation and enabling social and economic development. The impressive part of this ODP is that, it provides open data, citizen engagement, innovation, public service and institutional platforms.

BudgetIT and OroData are among the major CSOs and social media practitioners who usually obtained, analysed and published government data on their respective websites for effective citizen participation, transparency and collaboration, with the aim of directly engaging citizen to influence government processes, decision making and service delivery.

Based on the commitment of the current administration of Muhammadu Buhari to the fight against corruption in all its ramifications, it is imperative for the FGN to fast tract the implementation of open data initiative. So that principle of transparency and accountability in public administration can easily be achieved. This would enable anti-graft agencies to find data readily available to aid their investigation and prosecutorial activities in the fight against systemic and administrative corruption. Therefore, an OGD portal that is all encompassing with various datasets, analytical tools and info-graphics    from all arms of government and across divergent sectors of the economy will provides greater assistance in this direction.

It is however important, to note that, despite the numerous advantages associated with OGD initiative, its risks and far reaching limitations should not be neglected. This is based on the fact that, freedom of information does not negate other rights and should not be allowed to the detriment of legal rights, privacy and national security. – MURTALA BELLO BANKANU – KADUNA, Nigeria

Strategic Public Sector Human Resources Management for Sustainable Development in Cameroon


Without critical thought, four loopholes puncture the efficiency and effectiveness of the public service of Cameroon… and there are many more weaknesses. But for the sake of space, let us snap on these and explain the benefits should the government decide to repent; confess their Human Resources Management sins and take necessary actions to improve the management of not only its public service capacity but work towards a sustainable approach of cultivating and nurturing students for future futuristic public sector jobs.

Cameroon lacks a 21st century clear cut legislation guiding Public Sector Human Resources Management. More so, the structured pigeonholed remuneration system is archaic and doesn’t work! The Public Sector Human Resources Management has, unfortunately– despite growing complexities and increasing challenges in today’s world; including the numerical explosion in the size of the public service — drifted only a few inches away from the stereotypic Personnel Administration system that had been, with the aim of serving their own colonial interests instituted by the French colonial administration through the policy of Direct Rule during the colonial era. The fallouts of Personnel Administration stir us unrepentant: economic stagnation, inability to accomplish up to 30% completion of MDGs and government’s development targets etc. Political assignments with the aim of winning over political opponents is not doing Cameroon any good; picking for instance, a law professor directly from the classroom without on-the-field experience to head The Ministry of Agriculture is argumentum ad verecundiam.

Cameroon must genuinely introduce Strategic Human Resource Management to its Public Sector if they were serious to become emergent by the target date of 2035.

No need to emphasize the far reaching positive consequences in creating a Human Resources Management Ministry and merge with the Ministry of Education; the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Management – to replace the current plethora of education ministries and the Ministry of Public Service and Administrative Reforms. Ever thought for a minute what the benefits would be to begin raising public servants from secondary school? This would, to a large extent kill disturbing proportions of career uncertainties faced by students; orientate and counsel students towards pursuing specific career options based on their academic strengths, passion for the discipline and other competences.

Strategic Public Sector Human Resources Management, SPSHRM would also allow for:

  • Close active professional relationship between Human Resources managers and policy, decision and law makers; assignments to top government positions such as ministerial, secretaries general, general managers must be merit based;
  • Passing comprehensive legislation on Strategic Human Resources Management that would not only be limited to public service but also watchdog sleeping private sector managers to help government realize development objectives;
  • Adequate HR planning that would ensure that the right people with the right skills are assigned the right tasks at the right place at the right time to the right benchmarks for optimal performance;
  • Dismantling the pay system on the basis of categories A, B, C, D and match quality service to quality pay system. Great and enviable remuneration package. Assessing and measure the performance of employees to influence commendation, incentives or query;
  • Enhancing the competences and capacities (skills, knowledge, experiences, motivation, integrity) of public servants through trainings and mentoring;
  • Diversity and inclusions of well qualified persons to complete regional balance and satisfy minority groups erases tension;
  • Human Resources managers of Cameroon’s public service must align their strategies towards realizing goals set by government and or regional / international organizations.

All of the foretasted would revolutionize and drastically improve Cameroon’s public service performance and output thus achieving goals set by government and individual employee goals. – Akoson Akotarh Raymond – Yaounde, Cameroon

Learner’s Submission: Open Goverment Data in Mexico


“Mexico has a national government initiative to create a national Open Government Data portal in


Only some of the bodies of government have published information. Moreover, many of the bodies of government publishing yours Open Government Data within their own corporate websites.

Datasets published in, there are 490 datasets from the federal government, state government, local government and autonomous agencies. They are also a few Webservices of national metrology service.

This site also contains 43 applications.

Lot of datasets are information for the offices was easy to open.

Published data are mainly visualizations of information into geographic maps. Is very important develop applications that integrate different data sources, of government and the private sector, with the aim of obtaining new applications and citizens services.

Moreover, published applications were developed by government agencies. Missing applications developed by citizens.

The portal is a good initiative that comes from the government, but needs more applications and Open Govenrment datasets.

Unfortunately citizen engagement is incipient, the initiative portal exposes government datasets but lack the dissemination and communication strategy, for citizens use the datasets and generates more applications.

Mexico has additional experience.

INAI is responsible for transparency in Mexico, INAI has published several Open Goverment Datasets.

All “requests for information” and responses are available for download in Datasets open formats, at:


The datasets contain information from 2013 to 2015. Moreover, the information is distributed by sectors or topics  such as:

  • Agriculture, animal breeding, rural development, fishing and feeding
  • Social Security
  • Communications and transportation
  • Legal Counsel of Federal Executive
  • Technology and Science
  • National defense & Marina
  • Social development
  • Economy
  • Public education
  • Energy
  • Public Service
  • Information and National Statistics
  • Health
  • Public Security
  • Tourism
  • And other more

The datasets are located in open formats: SQL standard, XML, CSV and JSON.

At 2014/31/12, this site had 3,611 visits and 30,009 downloads of datasets.

The citizens interest for the information was: information of the marines, followed by funds to workers and national statistics.  The following figure shows the interest of citizens:


Finally, it’s necessary to improve citizen engagement, to obtain mores services and applications than those provided by government. It will require more hacking events offering prizes to winners.” – Hiriam Perez – Coyoacán, México


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