Malaysian Government and Social Media


The power of social media denies international boundaries and enables people to communicate in the globalized world. Thanks to the social media, it is now possible for the people living in Asia would know what is currently happening in the Americas. For the people in Malaysia, any breaking news, any new announcement made by the Head of State, would be known in seconds. For the Malaysian people, they welcomed this idea because it would give them first-hand information. For the Malaysian government, this development brings both pros and cons. The cons, due to the uncontrolled flow of information and lack of acceptance from the Malaysian people of the e-government services may lead ineffectiveness on the initiative.

In Malaysia, the state of social media is constantly evolving day by day. The Malaysian government has embraced the social media as part of their initiatives to communicate directly to the people. Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are the most popular sites which the Malaysian government is currently embarking on.

In the context of the Malaysian government, the “government’ here refers to the government agencies which would like to interact directly to the people, on their on-going initiatives, services, performance and also getting first hand feedbacks. For an example, Royal Malaysian Police’s (RMP) Facebook account is so popular due to the needs of the people to know the safety level in the country especially knowing the IS threat is overwhelming in South East Asia. RMP has posted a lot useful information during the previous Eid holidays pertaining to road safety, traffic information, and crime rates amongst others. This is not possible many years ago and RMP has to do it by the old fashion way by using the radio, newspapers, mainstream national and private television networks. Kudos to the social media, campaign cost has gone down and the messages is far more reachable.

Meanwhile, politicians use social media as part of their initiatives to gain political mileage.  Even in Malaysia, politicians tend to opt to use social media as well to expand their political influences. As an example, our famous Prime Minister has a lot of social media accounts not relating to only Facebook and Twitter accounts, to reach more people in the country. Politicians gained a lot from these social media platforms in Malaysia due to the country’s penetration rate, any formal functions attended, press statement given by them, would be known in instant of seconds. From there, the politicians could judge their acceptance rate by the likes or feedbacks given by the people.

Getting in depth, the Malaysian government is becoming transparent and embraces social media to tackle these four key areas; government services, politics, economics and security. All these areas is essential to the government to ensure the smooth sailing of the country in becoming a developed nation.

  1. Government Services

 According to the Malaysian government official website ( there are 1,432 online services currently available to both citizen and non-citizen of Malaysia. These includes tax payments, child adoptions, business premise licenses and many more. By looking at the number of online services alone, it is almost impossible for a stand-alone website to “promote” itself to the people.

  1. Politics

The Malaysian political scene has changed significantly over the years with the assistance of social media. Political campaign now could be run 24/7, thanks to Facebook and YouTube. A lot of critics has been given to the current Malaysian Prime Minister for his incompetency in running the Malaysian government and money scandals. His team of so called “cyber-troopers” did a fantastic job making sure that the current on-going issues will not tarnish his political career and image. It is proven on the previous two by-elections where the Coalition won with a big majority when the people expected the Coalition to lose the by elections due to his unpopular image.

  1. Economics

Moving forward into more globalize economic world, Malaysia has embrace the social media to brand itself in order to stand out compared to the other countries in South East Asia. As an example, the Ministry of Tourism Malaysia has utilized YouTube to post a lot of interesting places in Malaysia to attract more tourists and investors into the country. In order to that, this require a lot of branding exercises.

  1. Security

The Malaysian Armed Forces consists of three main branches; The Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy and Royal Malaysian Air Force. The security forces played a very critical role in ensuring the safety and stability in the nation. They too have utilized the social media to reach out to the people of Malaysia. The idea of the armed forces to exercise such initiatives are to ensure the people that the armed forces are currently in the state of readiness and will act accordingly against any aggressors. The recent China intervention in the South China Sea has sparked a lot of angst towards the Malaysian people. They too felt insecure on the development and feared a full scale conventional war would broke out. By using the social media especially Facebook and YouTube, it become easier for the armed forces to notify the public while at the same time to ease the tension among Malaysians

To conclude, the social media remains as a mainstay to the Malaysian government. Its uses is significantly recognized to strengthen the country and move this nation forward into more globalize and competitive world. The people of Malaysia should know how to fully use the social media to their advantage so that they will not be left out compared to the other citizens of the neighboring country. – Zarifhadi Bujang, Malaysia.


Legislation in Mongolia regarding the data protection?


After twenty first century Mongolians have begun the process of improving transparency and access to information in the country. As of May 2007, the Cabinet of Ministers discussed a final draft of a Freedom of Information law, but action was postponed on the law to allow it to be discussed along with draft laws on information security and information technology. Mongolian Data protection Law (adopting a Law on Personal Secrecy 1995 and a Law on Personal Secrecy/ Privacy Law) was first approved in 2011 nearly a quarter of a century after data privacy laws first appeared in Asia. Therefore the data privacy sector is kind of new and I do not think it is sufficient safe in Mongolia.

Last few decades technology developments show no sign of slowing. Communications and control technology continues to argument the intelligence of individual humans, collections of humans, and machines. It is called as the Information Age that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information computerization. This era had brought internet cyber world which is a magnificent tool for the information sharing. It is said that the Internet cannot be totally destroyed in one event, and if large areas are disabled, the information is easily rerouted. In Mongolia, internet users are growing rapidly especially young generation are attracting to social media such as Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn etc. Because internet is user-friendly to access and almost every single café, restaurant have their own free Wi-Fi in Ulaanbaatar (capital city of Mongolia). However there are many pros in the internet usage, it has followed some issues related to human right, data privacy and information sharing policy. For instance, people share Mongolian movies on the social media without their permission. It is impossible to identify the real name on the social media therefore piracy occurs regularly on social media. Some personal information is considered more sensitive than other, and therefore subject to stricter rules; this includes racial or ethnic origin, political views, religion, and health and sex life. Such information cannot be collected or used at all without individual’s consent.

In the technologized societies, to empower us to control our information and to protect us from abuses, it is essential that data protection laws restrain and shape the activities of companies and governments. Although most people know that they break the data protection law, they do it voluntarily because there is no accurate government controlling system. High-tech criminals have becoming more sophisticated and organized. They can exploit human error and weak security controls to steal trade secrets, payments card data, employee and customer information, and other personal information. Hackers not only robe a company of data, they impugn its integrity, breach its trust with clients and customers; damage its brand and reputation.

To sum up, we need to organize trainings for the people who do not know about data protection law and so that could reduce the number criminality related to data privacy law. On the other hand, government organization should control and identify the criminality accurately. Therefore we could prevent from the increase number of criminality. – Badamsuren Batchuluun, Mongolia.

The SICAD website: a Tunisian portal for online public services.


The site SICAD allows users to:

  • learn about the news of the Tunisian administration and consult its notices and its news releases.
  • Be redirected to all sites of all Tunisian ministries and public institutions.
  • Know the legal and regulatory bases on the distance system of the administrative communication and information SICAD.
  • View all the public services available to users including:
  1. the list of public services available online whose total number amounted to 41services (dated June 30, 2016).
  2. The administrative services provided by the Tunisian administration: there are now up to 942 administrative services (dated June 30, 2016).

The SICAD displayed for each administrative service:

  1. Its terms of obtaining.
  2. The required document list.
  • Steps, interveners and time or delays.
  1. Folders repositories and places for obtaining the administrative service.
  2. Legislative references and regulations that govern it.
  3. All terms of reference relating to the exercise of certain economic and commercial activities.

For each term of reference, the site displays the name of the competent authority for validation, a link to download it, and a redirection link to website of this competent authority.

  1. The list and the download links of all official printed forms of the Tunisian government available to citizens and businesses.
  2. The list of offices of the relationship with citizens in ministries, governorates, public institutions and public companies and the redirect links to the supervisory authority over the operation of each office.

Users exploit the various sections of this site through an advanced search module based on filtering. Thus, each user can enter a keyword and refine the search with filters that allows him to choose: the department, the agency, the sector and the area of activity. The results appear at the bottom of the advanced research module alphabetically or by use date and in the form of a hyperlink that allows user redirection to the public service provider website.

Figure 2: the filtering module in advanced research

Users can also interact with the administrators of the website by sending various comments or requests relating to the form or purpose of the administrative service. A processing procedure of these comments or requests triggers in the background with the concerned administrations. The website will send the response to the user’s email address when ready.

Figure 3: section for user feedback

Finally, it remains to say that online public services are developing in Tunisia with a very slow pace as considered by citizens and businesses. The Tunisian state must take bold steps to develop an effective and sustainable e-government that can satisfy all the public action beneficiaries. – Hatem Haddad, Tunisia. 

As an HR maneger, how are your country’s top leadership and development vision linked to human resources capacity development in the public sector ?


Human Resources are central to planning, managing and delivering any service including health care, pharmaceutical services, public services in general…..etc. Any development achievement relies on the capacity of individuals. In order to reach the development objectives government should invest in individual development while financial resources also development policies and assistance are vital to the country’s capacity development.

UNDP defines capacity development as ‘the process through which individuals, organizations and societies obtain, strengthen and maintain the capabilities to set and achieve their own development objectives over time’. Capacity building commonly refers to a process that supports only the initial stages of building or creating capacities and alludes to an assumption that there are no existing capacities to start from. It is therefore less comprehensive than capacity development. The OECD/DAC writes that capacity building suggests a process starting with a plain surface and involving the step-by-step erection of new structure based on a perconceived design. Experience suggests that capacity is not successfully enhanced in this way capacity building can be relevant to crisis or immediate post- conflict situations where existing capacity has largely been lost due to capacity destruction or capacity flight.

Human beings are the most important and the most useful assets in any public sector organisation.

An organisation that has enough capital and unskilled workforce will be unable to achieve its goals.

Public sector in any country is made only to cover up unemployment in other words to decrease the rate of unemployment. In reality, I would say in our country, it’s only for previleged one. Human resources system is based on favouritism and bribery, corruption overall the industrial sector, food industry, and higher education., high positions. In contrast, health care and education are different. For health care specialized people are oriented directly without any protocol as they know that they are going to work in bad conditions for those who can bear. For others, they are going to be brilliant surgeons and doctors in other foreign countries. Regarding education sector, lattely, only those who cannot do something else go to education. It’s by no choice. That’s why we notice that education is backsliding more and more. As teachers are no more chosen for their capacities or even for having high education levels or being specialists. In short, the public sector in my country is not realy a reference .

But as a HR manager, top leadership is development. Being a leader can avoid so many difficulties that an organisation can face as the leader can avoid so many mistakes that could be done by the workfoce by being present at their side leading them so he/she knows exactly the weak points of anybody in his or her team. A leader knows exactly what king of people he/she wants to be surrounded with so a leader chooses the right skilled people which leads to a good understanding,  to a better managing and to the organization progression, this what we call development.

Human resources capacity helps leaders to measure the effectiveness of performance, it also helps to identify the weaknesses of the employees in this way it helps to identify the training needed in orde to improve the employees skills and knowledge. We have to give an important attention to Human resources for its vital potential implications relating to fair employment practices and about increasing concerns about employees productivity in the organization. Human Resources helps leaders to develop individuals creating a basis, or a start up, a line to plan a better future. Human resource management works to ensure that employees are able to meet organizational goals.

To sum up, in order to develop the public sector, both HR specialists and leaders should invest in the training and the development of the staff. It’s important that any investment in HR capacity evaluates the different ways to deliver the HR function. Leadership is the key development in any fair public sector. – Naciba Serir, Algeria.


Online Public Services in the Republic of Mauritius


The National Portal ( of the Government of Mauritius has a one-stop-shop for e-Services offered by Government agencies, i.e. the online services are published in a centralized repository that is easily accessible from main page of the portal.

The main benefit of having such a one-stop-shop for e-Services is that the Public does not have to search online services on websites of different Government agencies as searching and accessing online services are easier when same are consolidated at a single place.

As at date, more than 60 e-Services and 10 e-Payment services are available on the portal. In addition to listing e-Services in alphabetical order, a search feature as well as categorization of e-Services into different hierarchies such as Persona (Citizen, Business, etc.), Domain (Agriculture, Education, etc.), Ministry, Department and Parastatal are provided to allow users to lookup e-Services easily.

To avail of any e-Service, a user is required to register in the portal first and subsequently, the registered particulars are automatically populated every time a user applies for an e-Service. This saves the user from entering the information again for other e-Services.

A workspace is provided to the user within the portal where all applications to e-Services of the user can be searched, viewed and tracked.

An example of an e-Service, which is widely used by the citizens of Mauritius, is the “Application for Appointment for Vehicle Examination” at the National Transport Authority (NTA). The public may also phone, make a request by fax or call in person at the Vehicle Examination Centre for obtaining an appointment. However, the advantage of using the e-Service rather than conventional channels is that with the e-Service, an earlier appointment date can be obtained compared to other channels. This is an example of how take-up of e-Services can be increased by providing attractive incentives to the users over conventional service channels.

The e-Service “Application for Specific Registration Mark” of the National Transport Authority (NTA) is another popular e-Service, which allows vehicle owners to have an old registration mark allocated to their vehicle. It is to be noted that this facility can only be carried out via an e-Service. This is another way to increase use of e-Service by making applications to the service mandatory via the online channel.

The Government Portal is also accessible via an official mobile app on both Android and IOS that also provides access to online services.

In addition to the e-Services accessible on the Government Portal, businesses can also avail of online services for application of business licenses on the Business Licensing Portal (

Furthermore, the portal of the Local Authorities of the Republic of Mauritius ( allows members of the public to benefit from a number of services online such as Online Payment facility for Trade Fees, Application for Building and Land Use Permit, submission of complaints among many others.-Hemchandra Betchoo, Mauritius.



The disruptive technologies are facing a wide acceptance in Middle East; a very good example is United Arab Emirates direction to have a smart government. All government entities are supposed to turn their IT investments towards offering smart online solutions for residents.

Dubai government in particular have taken this to the next level, the vision of the country is that offering a friendly smart and online solution is not the entire story, mainly, they believe having a continues improvement of their polices, services and protocols is what matter, for that, Dubai government entities are actively presented on social media. The core believes of the government that no process or policy improvement will bring any more value, unless it comes from the users who are practicing it. They are actively encouraging people to engage with them over social media platform.

For example, Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum GBE, also known as Sheikh Mohammed, is the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates, and Emir of Dubai is actively using social media platforms to communicate government visions and plan to audience of Dubai, listening to them, and sometime, engaging with users via cover station and feedbacks.

On the other hand, communicating government initiative, plans, and visions is part of Dubai Media Office department. The core task of this office is to communicate government initiatives to public, sense the public sentiment and sometime, inviting random selected people for a discussion. They have been active mainly on Twitter, with wide audience and network up to 1.3+ million followers.

On the other hand, government agencies with essential offered services are also part of the social media presence as part of the government plan to have a winder citizen engagement. A very good example could be DEWA (Dubai Electricity and Water Authority) with a round 220,000 followers on Facebook, the main task of DEWA is to introduce government initiatives of Sustainable Power plans, Going-Green and other Eco-friendly activities that considered being in line with the country vision towards Expo 2020. It usually engages with people in conversation about power consumption, best practices to avoid wastage of power, and continues involvement and engagement with users on special advices to help them create a green-country.

Talking about government presence on the social media in Dubai, we should bring the attention to one of the most important government department in the country that is responsible of providing a safe place for the residents, Dubai Police.

Dubai Police page on Facebook considered being the most active page that is related to government, with an audience of 500,000 people, and a growth of 6000 users a week on average, it is considered to be the discussion platform for many users who wish to interact with Dubai senior police officers. It is usually known that top officials are monitoring the page and how the department is communicating with public on best safety practices, and new rules and regulations, in a chance to listen to user’s feedbacks, suggestions.

One final example can probably give the reader a satisfactory image on how the government of Dubai is using the social media for an added-value networking and excellent citizen engagement. On the very local level, Dubai Municipality page on Facebook, with 200,000+ followers, engages with users about various topics, from waste management, to city planning projects. They do a lot of engagement campaigns to have closer interactions with residents. The late introduce campaign was “The Best Photo of Dubai” Where users was requested to share their photos of the city in a chance to win a honorable certificate from the government.

Needless to say, all the mentioned above agencies, and particularly, all of the government agencies have enabled a “Complain/Suggestion” mechanism on their websites, and it is seriously looked at from senior official’s point of view. Some of the agencies allow citizens to have direct interactions with ministers.


From Dubai Government point of view, being on social media actively is part of the strategy towards having a better country. The idea is faster you have feedback from the ground, is faster your ability to learn and change. – Aboud Khederchah, United Arab Emirates.





Botswana is a landlocked Sub-Saharan African country located in the southern part of Africa. The country borders South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Zambia. Since its independence from Britain in 1966, the country has been hailed for its prudent management of natural resources, political stability, peace, good governance, democracy and freedom of expression. However the country has been affected dramatically by the HIV/AIDS disease with 18.5% of the country’s 2 million citizens reported to be infected by the disease (Statistics Botswana, 2014). Despite this challenge the country has stable economy and rank high in most of the world’s development indicators such as education, economic development and gender equality.


Due to the country’s legacy of good governance and democracy, the government have always strived to ensure that relevant laws are in place to help guide the developments and reduce uncertainties and ambiguities in the country. Laws are fully debated at parliamentary level with the contribution of citizens taking centre stage through a consultative process. This is also a cultural attribute embedded in the DNA of the citizens referred to as “Morero”, which translate roughly to consultation. Through this process the country has achieved citizen inclusion in government matters while at the same time keeping citizens informed about government’s activities.


The efforts to introduce legislation on access to data in Botswana dates back to 1997 as a recommendation of the Presidential Task Group for a Long Term Vision for Botswana report titled “Towards Prosperity for All” (Vision 2016 Commission, 1997). In 2010 a Freedom of Information Bill (FOI) was presented to the parliament. The bill was to pave way for a FOI Act which to this date is still not been finalized.

“The object of the Bill is to extend the right of members of the public to access information in the possession of public authorities by, inter alia –

  • Making available to the public, information about the operations of public authorities and, in particular, ensuring that the rules and practices affecting members of the public in their dealings with public authorities are readily available to persons affected by those rules and practices;
  • Creating a general right of access to information in documentary form in the possession of public authorities, limited only by the exceptions and exemptions necessary for the protection of essential public interests and the private and business affairs of persons in respect of whom information is collected and held by public authorities; and
  • Creating a right to bring about the amendment of records containing personal information that is incomplete, incorrect, misleading or not relevant to the purpose for which the document is held.” (Shaleshando, 2010).

There have been a lot of discussions, especially from media houses and journalists as a way to put pressure on the government but so far their efforts have been fruitless. International experts however have scrutinised the current bill citing that it lack content. Daruwala and Nayak (2011) postulated that in comparison to the Indian Right to Information Act of 2005 the bill doesn’t include a lot of aspects such as DNA data, political parties and private entities performing public services within the definition of “public authority”. However the authors praised the former Member of Parliament, Mr Shaleshando for drafting the bill (Daruwala & Nayak, 2011).


It is without no doubt that the FOI Act in Botswana would further strengthen the already existing good governance and democracy upon its finalization. The act will also increase government’s accountability and answerability to its citizens. The government should also view this Act as an opportunity to further reinforce the existing trust that prevails between itself and the citizens. It is this trust that has contributed to the success story of Botswana.  As the world embarks on the Sustainable Development Goals agenda (SDGs) it is of utmost importance that such policies and laws as the access to information by citizens of the world be looked into and countries must be pressurized to implement such policies and laws. It is through such policies and laws that country institutions can be strengthened and eventually peace, justice and strong partnerships be achieved. – Moalosi Lebekwe, Botswana.


  1. Statistics Botswana. (2014). Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS IV). Gaborone: Replubic of Botswana.
  2. Daruwala, M., & Nayak , V. (2011). Freedom Of Information Bill, 2010, Botswana; Preliminary Comments, Recommendations and Improvements. New Delhi: Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI).
  3. Shaleshando, D. (2010). Freedom of Information Bill. Gaborone: Republic of Botswana.
  4. Vision 2016 Commission. (1997). Towards Prosperity of All. Gaborone: Republic of Botswana.


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