Learner’s Submission: datos.gov.co – An Example of a Combination Process of Knowledge


“In the field of knowledge management, the process of converting explicit knowledge into explicit knowledge is known as combination. In this process of knowledge generation is from information systems, electronic data processing and integration. As I have always stated in my view, the Government Online program in Colombia, is nothing more than the implementation of a knowledge management system for the state, and this being consistent with and aligned with academic theory, the Open Data portal of the Colombian state is a combination tool where the existing explicit knowledge within organizations and often stored in databases to a repository brings providing some additional metadata and which new knowledge is explicit and is available to of society.

The public sector entities, have a lot of knowledge, both explicit and implicit, within their organizations, within their documents, information systems, spreadsheets, the minds of your servants, etc.., And some mode has been consolidated in the group of explicit knowledge. A conscious or unconscious, Quality Systems for Public Management that have been implemented over the last decade have as part of its objectives the documentation of processes and procedures of the entity, which has led to bulk process outsourcing within the state, much knowledge was only in the minds of public officials (tacit) is carried documents, systems, electronic media (explicit).

Much of the information derived from the process of externalization begins to articulate data and information that is already structured in some systems entities and begins to generate new knowledge, the latter begin to release data sets that are exploitable by society and the government to notice this utility starts to make it available to social actors in the country, citizenship, for them, give added value and benefit from this information that the end of the day is public character and are the property of citizens who have paid their taxes.

Within the portal Datos.gov.co now a number of useful information from different sources in free and machine-processable formats, which have helped to develop applications, conduct research, support studies, among others, supporting a process of knowledge transfer is from the State to citizenship. But this knowledge is not unidirectional, citizenship also has tools through this website to comment and suggest, which leads to identifying data needs of the citizenry, these needs are recorded within a system and thus again provides a process outsourcing passing the tacit knowledge of citizenship to explicitly registered within the State system.

At the time of writing this post the catalog has 499 published data sets, although already a considerable number is still more use by the public, but this also happens because of the lack of commitment of many entities to open their data, or verify its usefulness.

In Colombia advance to the management of public institutions through an instrument called FURAG for its acronym in Spanish (Single Registration Form for Advance Management) measurement performed there the different public entities are consolidated in a single instrument is measured within the themes that are measured is the online government and there is recorded that components eGovernment strategy has been implemented. The issue of open data is a component element of Democracy Online which in turn belongs to the Government Online Strategy.

Therefore, some organizations publish open only to demonstrate progress in the management and this requirement is done in Colombia as a control data, but lacking in some, a commitment to the philosophy of open government, review the usefulness of this, beyond meet to meet, open data only for passing the test on the entities.

Although there is still much to do, still need to build commitment both citizens and institutions and industry can be said to be on the right track and that the hard work of the professionals we engage in creating awareness and hold hands entities for cover under the same blanket of open government.” – Carlos Andrés Morales Machuca – Bogota, Colombia


Learner’s Submission: Case Study of Decentralization in Zimbabwe


“The Zimbabwean government defined decentralization as the process of transferring planning, management responsibilities, resources, and authority and or accountability arrangements from the central to sub-national or local organs of governance. Decentralization can take different forms the dispersal of central government responsibilities through de-concentration or field administration or the delegation of specialized authority to manage executive agencies to a management team or via devolution of responsibilities, human and fiscal resources to locally governing bodies that are semi-autonomous from the national government, normally referred to as local authorities or government. In 1995, the Zimbabwean government initiated the Water Resources Management Strategy in order to introduce reforms within the water sector. The Water Resource Management Strategy process, initiated in 1995 and completed in 2000, resulted in a new national Water Policy and a National Water Pricing Policy and Strategy. The reforms within the water sector were designed to reflect key Integrated Water Resource Management principles, including stakeholder participation, decentralization, and making resources available for water development and water management. The overall goal of the National Water Resources Policy is to promote the sustainable, efficient and integrated utilization of water resources for the benefit of all Zimbabweans. Under decentralization, the government of Zimbabwe delegated the authority of water management to councils, councils had to develop water outline plans, issue permits, regulate water use and perform other water-related activities as required by the central government. The Catchment Councils delegate some activities to the Sub-Catchment Councils, although these activities do not include allocating water permits.

Under this, the Zimbabwean government had to allocate the Ministry of Rural Resources and Infrastructural Development as the custodian of water rights and develops policies on water development and Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA)  which acts as an operator and a regulator. ZINWA is responsible for water supply to urban centres, while the municipalities supply water to smaller urban settlements. Rural water supply and sanitation is coordinated by the National Action Committee for Water and Sanitation, which is an inter-ministerial committee chaired by the Minister of Local Government .The seven Catchment Councils established under the Zimbabwe National Water Authority Act are responsible for all aspects of water management within their responsive catchment areas. However, this has seen the management of water as a resources not being centrally managed. Authority has been given to sub governmental units and the councils to manage the water. With such decentralization, councils can engage the community in managing the water and in decision making regarding water issues. ” – Soul Nyangoni – Harare, Zimbabwe

Learner’s Submission: Social Media Channels in Zimbabwe


“Social media refers to internet services and mobile phone applications used for the generation, dissemination information. When a government has obtained knowledge it must be managed so that it can easily be obtained by those who need it. This overload of data is making knowledge management increasingly more important. Three key reasons why actively managing knowledge is important to Zimbabwe’s government’s success are to facilitate decision-making capabilities, build a learning country and to stimulate cultural change and innovation.  Zimbabwe uses television, radios and the internet as its social media channels.  The Zimbabwean government has realized that social media technologies allow for television and radio to be accessed and shared in a variety of ways. Viewers can actively participate while watching a program and have their interactions viewed and responded to in real time by other viewers. Technologies such as smart phones and laptops allow for these actions to occur anytime, anywhere. The Zimbabwean government has used the television and to some extent the radio to disseminate information across the country. The radio and television are used to disseminate educational and developmental information on critical areas such as agriculture and mining. This growth of internet access via mobile phones has led to much more use of social media by public sector organizations. This is part of a wider shift in greater openness around communications channels in Zimbabwe. Social media is becoming an increasingly popular set of channels for Zimbabwean government to use in their communication and engagement mix because, they provide a cost effective means of engaging with an audience, more and more people across different demographics are using social media; and they are simple to set up and use. The government has realized that each and very Zimbabwean must receive or must have access to important information irrespective of race, social status, industry and geographical locations. Information is power and has enhanced the development of the Zimbabwean community.” – Soul Nyangoni – Harare, Zimbabwe

Learner’s Submission: Data Protection in Albania


“According to my personal opinion I think that Albania has made some progress during these last years in the field of data protection. It’s absolutely necessary to emphasize the fact that this is a multiple sphere, which involves the cooperation of many key actors as: public, private, international, etc. We are all aware that technology today has changed the way how we see the world and how we behave. Considering the fact that all these new technologies are used by anyone it’s absolutely necessary to regulate this sector by putting rules and obligations. In Albania I want to mention the establishment of the Commissioner for Personal Data Protection (CPDP), which plays an important role to protect personal data in the Republic of Albania.


An important role has performed by this institution to raise awareness at persons for the importance of data protection. I want to emphasize the fact that during working for this paper I have been considerable been referred to the 2012-2013 Strategy of Albanian Commissioner’s Office for Personal Data Protection, which address the main issues of data management and protection in Albania.

Vision of the 2012-2012 CPDP Strategy is to make Albania a safe place, where the law is applied and personal data protection is under control.  1. The controllers who collect and process personal data are responsible for performing this task in a safe and righteous way all data protection is under control. 2. The controllers provide to the subjects the right to access their personal data. 3. The subjects understand how their personal data are processed and are aware that they can take measures to protect their data from misprocessing.

Priorities: The strategic goals can be summarized as follows: 1. Improving personal data protection; 2. Reducing the threats to personal data processing; 3. Monitoring and inspecting the application of the law by public and non-public controllers; 4. Identifying the needs for intervention.

Policy and effects:

  • Excessive and irrelevant.
  • Stored for a longer time than the purpose for which they were collected.
  • Disclosed to persons not entitled to have them.
  • Used wrongfully and in violation of the law for other purposes.
  • Not stored securely.

Capacity building

 1.  Direct communication:

a) Direct communication with the public (Personal data subjects);
b) Ongoing communication with the media;
c) Organizing a quarterly press conference at the premises of the Commissioner for Personal Data Protection;
d) Participating in different television programs;
e) Giving interviews for different media interested in specific issues on personal data protection;
f) Participating in meetings, workshops and other activities organized by different Albanian media forums and making public specific attitudes and opinions of the Commissioner’s Office for Personal Data Protection;
g) Training students of the Department of Journalism and other media employees in the field of personal data protection;
h) Ongoing monitoring of the press regarding potential violations of the Law “On personal data protection”.

2.  Enhancing the notification and registration process:

a) Ongoing identification of the private and public controlling subjects;
b) Legal review and evaluation of data processing according to the statements in the Notification Form;
c) Registering the controllers’ notification in the Central Register;
d) Organization and further conduction of awareness raising activities for the controllers

Albanian Commissioner’s Office for Personal Data Protection aim to achieve in its Strategy 2012-2013 the following goals:

  • The approval of legal amendments to the Law “On personal data protection”;
  • Ongoing development of the domestic legal framework aiming the best international practices;
  • Other collaboration agreements with the universities, Prosecution Office, counterpart institutions, etc;
  • Close collaboration with IPA-2009 project;
  • Training controllers on the new amendments to the law, after their approval;
  • Trainings mainly for legal departments of state institutions;
  • Launching draft acts in round tables before their approval by the Commissioner;
  • Promoting any approved new act through leaflets or awareness raising guidelines;
  • Close collaboration between the departments of the institution;
  • Collaboration with foreign authorities to exchange mutual experiences.

Addressing complaints and monitoring:

a) Addressing complaints;
b) Administrative control and inspection;
c) Plan-based control;
d) Notification-based control
I. Whether the status of the processing for a specific controller is as reflected on the Register;
II. Whether the controller has updated the information and does not process data in violation of the processing status that has been registered;
III. Whether the Commissioner’s Office, upon notification, should verify with the controller the sensitive data processing, processing through CCTVs, biometric data processing and international transfers.
– Complaints-based inspection;
– Inspection on the applicability of the Recommendations, Orders and Decisions of the Commissioner

Basic legislation on data protection: Albania’s first law for the protection of personal data is that of 1999, Law No. 8517, dated 22.07.1999 “On protection of personal data”, which found no effect.

The basic legislation of this Institution is:

  1. Law “On Personal Data ProtectionNo.9887, dated 10 March 2008
  2. Decision No. 934, dated 2.9.2009 on Determination of States with adequate level of protection of personal data.
  3. Decision no. 1232, dated 11.12.2009 on Determination of cases for exemption from the obligation of notification of processed personal data.” – Mirsada Hallunaj – Tirana, Albania

Learner’s Submission: Data Protection – Provision and Practice


“Data can be defined as both the qualitative and quantitative facts or the points of observations and, if contextualized, they are the primary source of information. Data or collection of data without their connection to time or space do not make information. But such data with some context or connection to time or space make information. Both the management of data and information are two of the significant components of knowledge management in government and other organizations. Government organizations usually manipulate data derived from two major process: creating data themselves from observations, monitoring and from daily decision making with reference to different policies and second is the reception of data from other organizations or individuals. Self-generated or received from others, the government organizations use data in different forms such as electronic copies, hard copies and verbal signals. As data in context have meaning and signified implications, they help for making generalizations, fact based rational decisions, projection of trends and consequently innovations to tackle with potential problems. Because of these points of significance, government organizations, being based on laws or other standard conventional practice, usually protect the created, collected or received data in the organizations. But despite the intention of the protection of the data as envisaged by varieties of prevailing laws, their misplace or loss cannot be ignored due to different causes such as blurred responsibility, organizational culture of not sharing data or policy of ultra-secrecy, or lack of physical drawers and folders or as a whole available infrastructure. For the protection of data, the government of Nepal has formed different acts, rules and policies.

The Act on Right to Information, 2064 BS (2007) writes on its preamble that the act has been brought to promote the public accountability, transparency and access of people towards the information of public significance as well as to protect the sensitive information negatively affecting the state and the welfare of the people. Ensuring the right of people to information, it has also identified and mentioned some areas and nature of information that are protected or not disseminated by the public organizations at all. Such information includes as creating disturbances to sovereignty, national integrity, peace, international relations, fraternity among the castes and ethnic groups, and other information that tends to endanger personal privacy, and body, life, health and security of a person. Stating that the public institution has to ensure that the data and information related to some particular person is not leaked or published or disseminated without written approval of the person, the act writes that the personal information available in the office can be used only if it is demanded by law or in case of controlling corruption.

It has also made the provisions of Information Officer in each government office to deliver the information to the public and National Information Commission to overall protect and promote the right to information. It has provisioned to frame a committee in the chair of the chief secretary of the Government of Nepal to classify the information and fix the protection period as well as method as per the nature and sensitivity of the information.

Similarly, though it is not targeted to the management of data and information, there is the Civil Service Act, 2049 BS (1993) that states that  civil employee should not, without being authorized by Government of Nepal, directly or indirectly provide or divulge, to any other unauthorized employee or non-governmental person or press, any confidential matter or any other document or news prohibited by law which was /is known to him/her in the course of performing the governmental duty.

In addition to these acts, the Electronic Transaction Act 2063 BS (2006) has made different provisions regarding the protection of electronic data. It has forbidden the unauthorized access to computer materials. The act ensures legal validity of the electronic data, documents, information or records kept safely and exactly in the same format as originally generated or transmitted. It has also stated that if any person accesses any program, information or data of any computer without the permission of the owner or performs any act contrary to the authorization; such a person is liable to punishment.

The Prevention of Corruption Act, 2059 (2002 A.D) has different provisions on safeguarding the public documents. According to the act, it is punishable if a public servant or any other person, corrects, adds or changes in documents belonging to a government or public institution without authority. Similarly, damaging or destroying or concealing the documents belonging to the government or the public institution is defined to be punishable.

Besides the legal provisions, the role of the corresponding practice is also significant to protect the available data. Generally, in the offices, the practice of keeping data safe and utilizing them in appropriate time is influenced by a variety of factors. They include available furniture, drives, folders, office space, office layout, as well as the trends of filing and indexing, keeping the data or the documents in hard drives or sharing them among the co-workers are significant for the protection of the data in government organizations.

As a whole, the Government of Nepal has different legislation for both protection and transparency of data or information. The organizational practice on the protection of data is guided by the legislation. As being guided by the relevant acts, it is necessary for the officials to protect as well as provide the received data to other organizations or stakeholders. As no non-official can search or use records or files in the government offices, the possibility of leaking data or document is minimal through outsiders. Similarly, the digital data have legal validity like the hard copy data and unauthorized access to others’ computer or program, alteration, or deletion of others’ data is punishable by law. The concept of Government Integrated Data Center (GIDC) has also been introduced. From these all dimensions of prevailing laws, organizational general practice, officials’ moral and legal observance, the trends of managing hard data and soft data, the status of ensuring the protection of data can be said satisfactory.” – Yuba Raj Guragain – Kathmandu, Nepal

Learner’s Submission – Knowledge Management in India


“Indian Government is relatively a new entrant to Information technology and Knowledge Management. Notwithstanding the envious position of Indian private sector as ‘leading IT services providers in the world’, Indian Governmental organizations have been extremely slow and lethargic in adopting the latest in IT infrastructure and skills. Consequently Indian bureaucracy displays incapacity and inefficiency in gathering, collating, protecting, scaling and staying accessible to technology upgradation and cutting edge in IT technologies.

The Union Government and State Government have in recent years spent crores of rupees on projects of e-Government. The infrastructure have been established and functionaries have been put in place, however, amusing part is, the functionaries are often found fumbling and struggling with the applications and hardware. Indian bureaucracy are similar to cave men handling LPG (liquefied Petroleum Gas) stoves, awed by the advanced technology, poor souls, are lost in the paraphernalia of the latest in IT. This demonstrable incompetence is stark and explicit in Police stations and Cyber Crime Cells in India. We as ordinary citizens find it difficult, if not impossible, to repose faith in the police to tackle petty Cyber Crimes. Hence most of us choose not to approach the police for small cyber-crimes which have become too common and extremely irritating in recent days. In our organization we have started to participate in programme which will encourage folks to adopt the latest upgraded, licensed programs and technology to curb the growing Cyber misdemeanors by enhancing individual level security of PCs/Devices. The Indian Government has also been constantly pressurized to involve in technology adaptation and training to its staff and closer collaboration with the private sector on matter of online security and Governance. The authorities have realized their incompetence on the issue of Internet Governance and have resorted to excessive regulation which has been severely criticized by the Citizens and Civil society in recent days. Given the above circumstances, we believe, data with our government is NOT safe. The government has no means or skills to secure our data and will definitely endanger the safety and well being of our Country.

Under section 87 of Information Technology Act 2000, the Indian Government is empowered, by notification, to prescribe rules and regulations for Data Security. Data security is secured through digital certification and signatures. Controller of Certifying Authority (CCA) is identified as the regulating agency for the licensing ‘Certifying Authority (CA)’, who is to issue DSCs to applicants, also maintain repositories of signatures and revocation lists, regulations of infrastructure necessary for receiving recognition for being
designated as CA has also been elaborated. Technology security is advised, few standards have been prescribed, and verification and signing of certificates are facilitated through well designed aesthetically pleasant websites. Requirements that need to be fulfilled for issuance of the ‘Keys’ or ‘Digital Signature Certificates (DSA)’ has been notified through the Gazette. Algorithms, Website features and physical and data security measures which need to be adhered to, have been clarified through official website of the CCA – cca.gov.in. Under section 70B of Information Technology Act 2000 as amended by IT Act 2008 empowers the central government to establish CERT-In (Indian Computer Emergency Response Team), through gazette notification, which is authorized to step in to deal with cyber-crime and security response mechanisms to deal with national, International cyber-crimes and depending on ‘discretion’, regional/state cybercrimes may also be investigated. Here Cyber-crimes include the entire gamut of Computer related criminal activity. The functioning of the CERT-In has been impressive as they have helped in solving some cases of online defamation, Phishing, spam, Online Intimidation. We got the opportunity to go through a case study (By- Additional District & Sessions Judge – Talwant Singh – Cyber law and Information Technology) provided through CERT-In official website; however there have been very little convictions under IT Act 2000. The problem has been in lack of proper awareness and desensitization (presently over sensitization of middle bureaucracy have led to avoidable punitive harassment of Internet/social media users in India) of the bureaucracy about the nature of cyber misdemeanors. It would need long-term planning and proper training schedules for the senior and middle level staff training, while the cutting edge bureaucracy will need the necessary motivations and incentives to enhancing skills and overcome inertia that is characteristic of weberian bureaucracies.” – Anil Dev Gopalakrishna – Karnataka, India

Lecture on Knowledge Management and Strategy


Want to learn more about Knowledge Management? The UNPAN Online Training Centre course Knowledge Management in Government Organization now offers a supplementary lecture on Knowledge Management and Strategy, presented by Dr. Jay Liebowitz, the Orkand Chair in Management and Technology at the University of Maryland University College (UMUC). To view the lecture, visit the course page at www.unpan.org/elearning and click on the sessions available at the Supplementary Material box. The total time for the four sessions is 29 minutes.

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