“The World Bank report of anti-corruption reforms in Georgia,
- Where they reactive, preventative or proactive anti-corruption reforms?
The World Bank anti-corruption reforms where REACTIVE, this is true because beginning in 1995-following a tumultuous period after independence that included three armed conflicts-the government restored some security and disbanded paramilitary groups that had vied for power since independenc. Nearly all key macroeconomic indicators increased significantly between 1992-94 and 1997. After years of contraction, the economy grew at a rapid clip, inflation was tamed and international increased from about 3 weeks to 2.5 months worth of imports.
- Where citizens involved by information, consultation or active participation?
The World Bank anti-corruption reforms where ACTIVE PARTICIPATION, this is true because in 2000, the government launched an effort to tame the growing crises of corruption in the public sector. President Shevardnadze appointed a group of seven experts to elaborate a national anti-corruption program and guidelines for its implementation. On the basis of the work of the expert group, the president signed two decrees in April and May 2001 authorizing the formation of a 12-member coordinating council.
- Did they use legal regulation, policy, consultation or operational tools?
The World Bank anti-corruption reforms in Georgia used LEGAL REGULATION because all branches of government were corrupt. The first meeting of the cabinet revealed just how dire things were. David Bakradze, who served at the National Security Council, said I was participating in the first National Security council Meeting the day after the revolution when the minister of defense stood up and said I don’t have food for my soldiers, only enough bread left for a day and a half. And then the minister of finance also stood up and said well there is no a single tetra [cent] in the treasury now.
. In one of his acts Zurab Nugaideli, the newly appointed finance minister, summoned tax collectors to a meeting at which they were told unequivocally that there will be zero tolerance for corruption and that henceforth they will be judged by their ability to collect revenue. The first priority was electricity supply.
- What contextual factors did the reformers have to take into account in order to gain the trust of citizens?
The World Bank anti-corruption reforms in Georgia took into account the following contextual factor in order to gain trust of citizens:
- Exercising strong political will
- Establish credibility early
- Launch a frontal approach assault
- Attract new staff
- Limit the role of the state
- Adopt unconventional methods
- Develop a unity of purpose, and coordinate closely
- Tailor international experience to local conditions
- Harness technology
- Use communication strategically
The above in turn resulted into:
- Stronger accountability framework
- Increase in trust
- Creation of a service culture
- Decline in corruption
- Sharp reduction in crime rates
ANTI-CORRUPTION AUTHORITIES AND CITIZENS INVOLVEMENT
- How they respond to contest
Below is the response to anti-corruption managed by anti-corruption authorities
51% join an anti-corruption authority
56% take part in peaceful protest
56% spread the word about corruption through social media
72% signed a petition
The objectives they pursue
The following are the objectives they pursue:
- Institutional support
- Public administration capacity
- Tools for capacity building
- Capacities that individuals need easy and equitable access to services
- Protection for citizen opportunities to easily monitor government
- Public sector whistle blowing
- Adequate information to recognize corruption.
- How to influence social attitudes.
The levels of engagement they use
- Power: formal rules of engagement at the micro level but broad base human rights reform may be needed for free speech and association, equal access to justice.
- Capacity: specialized training in social and community development to transfer knowledge to citizen without domination.
- Incentive: demonstrating the tangible benefits of becoming involved.
The types of issues they address
- System capacity: That’s how they engage citizens involvement supported by factors e.g. democratization of society decentralization, rule of law, freedom of expression, capacity building.
- Engagement: civil engagement initiatives also adjustments to institutions, value change introduction of new regulations and most importantly from within.
The stakeholders they engage
- Media also has a very important role to play in both highlighting genuine public issue as well as connecting citizens to public institutions.
- Legal and institutional frameworks
- Public administration
- Social institutions.
The above are the stakeholders through which anti-corruption authorities involved citizens in preventing corruption.” – Paul Hassan – Takum, Nigeria