“RBME system plays a key role in any kind of organization, large or small. Firstly it is a management system and secondly, a performance reporting system. It provides a coherent framework for strategic planning and management based on learning and accountability in a decentralized manner.
RBME movement emerged in 1990s with its emphasis on effectiveness- the achievement of desired outcomes with the outputs. And soon private and public sector, NGO’s adopted RBME system to become more effective and result oriented. Developed countries as well as Developing countries have adopted RBME for the following characteristics of the system.
I) Goal–Orientation: setting clear goals and results provide targets for change, and opportunities to assess whether change has occurred.
II) Causality (or Results Chain): various inputs and activities leading logically to outputs, outcomes and impact.
III) Continuous Improvements: periodically measuring results provides the basis of adjustment (tactical and strategic shift) to keep programs on track and maximize their outcomes.
According to Binnendijk, most organizations use the following strategies for effective RBME system:
I) Formulating Results Statements: Identifying in clear terms the results being sought and developing a conceptual framework for how the results will be achieved.
II) Identifying Indicators: For each results, specifying exactly what is to be measured and how.
III) Setting Targets: For each indicator, specifying the expected or planned levels of result to be achieved by specific dates, which will be used to judge performance.
IV) Monitoring Results: Developing performance monitoring systems to regularly collect data on actual results achieved.
V) Reviewing and Reporting Results: Comparing actual results vis-à-vis the targets.
VI) Integrating Evaluations: Conducting evaluations to provide complementary information on performance not readily available from performance monitoring system.
VII) Using Performance Information: Using information from performance monitoring and evaluation sources for internal management learning and decision-making and for external reporting to stakeholders on results achieved. Effective use generally depends upon putting in place various organizational reforms, new policies and procedures and other mechanisms or incentives.
Kusek and Rist have mentioned the 10-step RBME model and explained how to create the system in any organization for the desired results of any policy, program or project.
- Conducting a readiness assessment: A unique readiness assessment is the foundation of this system. It focuses on: what or who is encouraging the need for M&E systems, motivations of champions, ownership and beneficiaries of systems, how the system will support better resource allocation and achievement of goals, dealing with negative or detrimental information generated by M&E, existing capacity to support M&E system, and links between M&E system and project, program, sector and national goals.
- Agreeing on outcomes to monitor and evaluate: It involves the internal and external stakeholders to be consulted and engaged in setting outcomes, indicators, targets and so on during the various steps of the model to monitor and evaluate.
- Selecting key performance indicators to monitor outcomes: key performance indicators are selected to monitor progress with respect to inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts.
- Setting baselines and gathering data on indicators: Performance baselines are established. It is the starting point of the process of monitoring and evaluation. A performance baseline is information – qualitative or quantitative that provides data at the beginning of the monitoring period.
- Planning for improvement – selecting results targets: It involves selection of results targets by examining baselines indicators levels and desired levels of improvements .
- Monitoring for results: It includes both implementation monitoring and results monitoring .Monitoring for results entails collecting quality performance data within the guidelines.
- The E in M&E – using evaluation information to support a result based management system : Both Monitoring and Evaluation are needed now. Evaluation information and all types of evaluation are used for the desired results. But the timing of evaluation is to be kept in mind.
- Reporting the findings: It deals with analyzing and reporting data. Decision-makers now can take necessary action and make improvements.
- Using the findings: It involves generating and sharing knowledge and learning within the organizations and governments.
- Sustaining the M&E system within the organization : The last step faces all the challenges in sustaining RBME system , including demand , clear roles and responsibilities ,trustworthy and credible information , accountability, capacity and appropriate incentives .
Besides all these strategies, I will also recommend the following strategies to be deployed in my organization:
- Assessing advocacy
- Creating local capacity
- Training in PM& E methods
- Creating an evaluation culture
- Promoting evaluation through capacity building with respect to staff, institutions, tools and methodologies
- Knowledge management strategy
- Integration of evaluating findings
- E- governance for accountability and transparency
With the introduction of MDGs, many governments have also developed the RBME system independently to implement the vision. However user demand for RBME system is needed to be increased more and more for global sustainable development.” – Dr. Mahabur Rahaman Mondal – Kolkata, India